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Northwestern University and the University of Arizona conducted a study to find a less painful solution. The most recent version makes use of four adaptable, fine-mesh structures that simulate a leaf looping around the heart like a flower. The optogenetic method is utilized to activate cardiomyocytes using tiny blue LEDs. These lights only allow for the contraction of the heart muscle, thus the pain receptors are not activated.

The heartbeat can also be seen as optogenetic pacemakers use leads to stimulate the cells. As no part of the new device needs to be placed directly into the heart, it is also less invasive to implant. On the other hand, traditional pacemakers require surgery for replacement every 5 to 7 years because their batteries degrade over time. Optogenetic pacemakers, however, may be wirelessly driven by an externally placed resonance device since they have resonance connection technology. To provide power at a close range, the external resonance device can be fastened to objects or clothes.

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